Pool Billiards - The Rules of Play
1. General Rules
The following General Rules apply to all the games covered by these rules except when
contradicted by specific game rules. In addition, the Regulations of Pool Billiards cover
aspects of the game not directly related to the game rules, such as equipment specifications
and organization of events.
The games of Pool Billiards are played on a flat table covered with cloth and bounded by
rubber cushions. The player uses a stick (pool cue) to strike a cue ball which in turn strikes
object balls. The goal is to drive object balls into six pockets located at the cushion boundary.
The games vary according to which balls are legal targets and the requirements to win a match.
[Editorial comments on the U.S. English version: The masculine gender has been used for
simplicity of wording and is not intended to specify the gender of the players or officials. The
word game is used to refer to a discipline such as nine ball rather than a rack or a match.]
1.1 Player's Responsibility
It is the player's responsibility to be aware of all rules, regulations and schedules applying to
competition. While tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to have such
information readily available to all players as appropriate, the ultimate responsibility rests
with the player.
1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play
The lag is the first shot of the match and determines order of play. The player who wins the
lag chooses who will shoot first.
The referee will place a ball on each side of the table behind the head string and near the head
string. The players will shoot at about the same time to make each ball contact the foot
cushion with the goal of returning the ball closer to the head cushion than the opponent.
A lag shot is bad and cannot win if the shooter's ball:
(a) crosses the long string;
(b) contacts the foot cushion other than once;
(c) is pocketed or driven off the table;
(d) touches the side cushion; or
(e) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion.
In addition, a lag will be bad if any non-object-ball foul occurs other than 6.9 Balls Still Moving.
The players will lag again if:
(a) a player's ball is struck after the other ball has touched the foot cushion;
(b) the referee cannot determine which ball has stopped closer to the head cushion; or
(c) both lags are bad.
1.3 Player's Use of Equipment
The equipment must meet existing WPA equipment specifications. In general, players are not
permitted to introduce novel equipment into the game. The following uses, among others, are
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considered normal. If the player is uncertain about a particular use of equipment, he should
discuss it with the tournament management prior to the start of play. The equipment must be
used only for the purpose or in the manner that the equipment was intended. (See 6.16
(a) Cue Stick – The player is permitted to switch between cue sticks during the match, such as
break, jump and normal cues. He may use either a built-in extender or an add-on extender to
increase the length of the stick.
(b) Chalk – The player may apply chalk to his tip to prevent miscues, and may use his own
chalk, provided its color is compatible with the cloth.
(c) Mechanical Bridges – The player may use up to two mechanical bridges to support the cue
stick during the shot. The configuration of the bridges is up to the player. He may use his own
bridge if it is similar to standard bridges.
(d) Gloves – The player may use gloves to improve the grip and/or bridge hand function.
(e) Powder – A player is allowed to use powder in a reasonable amount as determined by the
1.4 Spotting Balls
Balls are spotted (returned to play on the table) by placing them on the long string (long axis
of the table) as close as possible to the foot spot and between the foot spot and the foot rail,
without moving any interfering ball. If the spotted ball cannot be placed on the foot spot, it
should be placed in contact (if possible) with the corresponding interfering ball. However,
when the cue ball is next to the spotted ball, the spotted ball should not be placed in contact
with the cue ball; a small separation must be maintained. If all of the long string below the
foot spot is blocked by other balls, the ball is spotted above the foot spot, and as close as
possible to the foot spot.
1.5 Cue Ball in Hand
When the cue ball is in hand, the shooter may place the cue ball anywhere on the playing
surface (see 8.1 Parts of the Table) and may continue to move the cue ball until he executes a
shot. (See definition 8.2 Shot.) Players may use any part of the cue stick to move the cue ball,
including the tip, but not with a forward stroke motion. In some games and for most break
shots, placement of the cue ball may be restricted to the area behind the head string depending
on the rules of the game, and then 6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement and 6.11 Bad Play from
Behind the Head String may apply.
When the shooter has the cue ball in hand behind the head string and all the legal object balls
are behind the head string, he may request the legal object ball nearest the head string to be
spotted. If two or more balls are equal distance from the head string, the shooter may
designate which of the equidistant balls is to be spotted. An object ball that rests exactly on
the head string is playable.
1.6 Standard Call Shot
In games in which the shooter is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be
indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or
other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant. Only one ball may be called on each shot.
For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if
there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter
should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be
played, he may ask for a call.
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In call shot games, the shooter may choose to call “safety” instead of a ball and pocket, and
then play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot. Whether balls are being spotted after
safeties depends on the rules of the particular game.
1.7 Balls Settling
A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections
in the ball or the table. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal
hazard of play, and the ball will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as the result of
such settling, it is restored as closely as possible to its original position. If a settling ball falls
into a pocket during or just prior to a shot, and this has an effect on the shot, the referee will
restore the position and the shot will be replayed. The shooter is not penalized for shooting
while a ball is settling. See also 8.3 Ball Pocketed.
1.8 Restoring a Position
When necessary for balls to be restored or cleaned, the referee will restore disturbed balls to
their original positions to the best of his ability. The players must accept the referee's
judgment as to placement.
1.9 Outside Interference
When outside interference occurs during a shot that has an effect on the outcome of that shot,
the referee will restore the balls to the positions they had before the shot, and the shot will be
replayed. If the interference had no effect on the shot, the referee will restore the disturbed
balls and play will continue. If the balls cannot be restored to their original positions, the
situation is handled like a stalemate.
1.10 Prompting Calls and Protesting Rulings
If a player feels that the referee has made an error in judgment, he may ask the referee to
reconsider his call or lack of call, but the referee's decision on judgment calls is final.
However, if the player feels that the referee is not applying the rules correctly, he may ask for
ruling by the designated appeals authority. The referee will suspend play while this appeal is
in process. (See also part (d) of 6.16 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.) Fouls must be called
promptly. (See 6. Fouls.)
If a player concedes, he loses the match. For example, if a player unscrews his jointed playing
cue stick while the opponent is at the table and during the opponent's decisive rack of a
match, it will be considered a concession of the match.
If the referee observes that no progress is being made towards a conclusion, he will announce
his decision, and each player will have three more turns at the table. Then, if the referee
determines that there is still no progress, he will declare a stalemate. If both players agree,
they may accept the stalemate without taking their three additional turns. The procedure for a
stalemate is specified under the rules for each game.